During a comprehensive examination of couples suffering from infertility, the diseases of the stronger sex are increasingly found. One of them is azoospermia, during diagnostics of which the absence of spermatozoids in the ejaculate is detected.
The method of intracytoplasmic injection of a single spermatozoid (better known as ICSI) has made a revolutionary breakthrough in treatment of male infertility. The city of Brussels had the honor to be the first to see the birth of the child conceived in this manner. However, in order to conduct the ICSI procedure, it is required to obtain a spermatozoid from a testicle by surgery.
Indications for testicular biopsy (TESA):
- non-obstructive azoospermia is described as the absence of sperm in the ejaculate. This genetic anomaly (Klinefelter syndrome, cryptorchidism, testicular torsion) is manifested as a violation in the system producing the spermatozoids in the testes.
- obstructive azoospermia occurs when the sperm production in the testes follows the natural cycle, and the reasons for the absence of spermatozoids in the diagnostic spermatogram material is mechanical obstruction. It may occur after treatment of inguinal hernia by surgery, bilateral aplasia or vasectomy.
- obstructive (mechanical) aspermis is characterized by obstruction of spermatic cord in the background of normal development of the male sex cells.